Evolution of Cooperation

How Did the Ability to Cooperate Arise, and What Causes it to Break Down?

Since the time of Darwin’s theory of evolution 150+ years ago, theoreticians and empiricists throughout the world have spent decades observing, hypothesizing about, testing the role of cooperation. Indeed, cooperation is often referred to as one of Darwin’s “unanswered questions.” It is the very subject Hamilton worked to explain with “Hamilton’s Rule.” Cooperation is a subject of fascination across academic disciplines and applied practice: from evolutionary biology, to economics, to law and to technological innovation, just to name a few. We believe this topic is ripe for a cross-disciplinary analysis 150 years beyond Darwin’s theory of evolution and 50 years beyond Hamilton’s theory of inclusive fitness.


The beauty of Gruter is that interactions go beyond transactional.

Samuel Arbesman, PhD

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